Papum Pare District is situated in the North Easter part of Arunachal Pradesh. Its mainland extended between 26°55′ and 28°40′ North latitude and 92°40′ and 94°21′ East longitudes. The district is bounded by Kra Daadi district in the north, Lower Subansiri district in the east, East Kameng district in the west and state of Assam in the south. The district headquarter is located at Yupia which is 22 kms from Itanagar. The name of the district is derived from the two major rivers called Papum and Pare. The district covers an area of 3462 sq kms approximately. The land is mostly mountainous with Himalayan ranges. The hill ranges approximately varies from 45 to 1200 mtrs above sea level. It is a land of lust green forest, deep river valleys and beautiful plateaus. Nyishis are the local inhabitants of Papum Pare district. They are believed to belong to Tibetan-Mongoloid stocks. The most important festival is “Nyokum Yullo”, which is related to agriculture.
The entire district is mountainous forming a part of the eastern Himalayas. The area comprises of a cross section of the foothill region adjoining the border of Assam, the lowed hills and the lofty mountains extending northwards. The natural vegetation comprises mainly tropical semi-evergreen and sub-tropical evergreen forests. At lower altitudes the vegetation consist of tall trees, shrubs, bamboo, wild banana, cane and various kinds of creepers and at higher altitudes it is mostly composed of ferns and rhododendrons. The Capital City of Arunachal Pradesh, Itanagar located at an altitude of about 1700 ft. above the sea level between 93° East Longitude and 27° North Latitude.
The climate of the district is largely influenced by the nature of its terrain varying with the natural divisions and elevation. The district as whole is mountainous terrain intersected by valleys and ravines through which flow innumerable streams and rivers. The elevation along the southern periphery of the district is as low as 200 m or less. The winter prevails from December to February. This is followed by the Pre-Monsoon seasons marked by thunderstorm till May. The south-west period monsoon begins in June and continues upto September. The period from the second half of October to November may be term as the post Monsoon season.The foothill region comprising strips of plain land is covered by dense forests. The rainfall in this region is extremely heavy, particulary in the Doimukh and its adjoining areas. As a result, the climate at lower elevations is highly humid. It is considerably hot in the summer and high humidity makes it sultry, aggravating in the places which are denuded of vegetation. The temperature falls when the monsoon brings heavy showers. The winter is not so cold, winter thick sheets of mist lie low in the morning but there is hardly any frost.
Agriculture and Horticulture is main sources of income in the district of Papum Pare, but many people have small business. The people practices subsistence agriculture. Jhum(shifting) cultivation in steep slopes and wet rice cultivation in low-lying areas is generally practiced. Horticulture is also practiced in most part of the district. The horticulture product of the district are orange, pine apple, banana, guava, jack fruit, papaya, lemon, litchi, plum, peach, large cardamon, pears etc. Domestic animals are also reared for consumption.
Transport and communication is the basic infrastructure for any development activity. The district is well connected by surface roads. Papum Pare District Hq. is connected with 22 kms long all weather road with Itanagar, the state capital and around 4 kms from Naharlagun Railway Station.